Quantum NanoFab Core Facility

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario
What the facility does

Nanofabrication cleanroom enabling the design and fabrication of a broad range of quantum and nano-scale devices.

Area(s) of Expertise

The University of Waterloo’s Quantum NanoFab infrastructure includes several class 10 through class 1000 cleanroom modules as well as multiple satellite labs which together house a broad range of state-of-the-art nanofabrication, packaging and assembly lab equipment. Professionally staffed and operated, the facility provides extensive safety, cleanroom and hands-on equipment training as well as guidance on advanced process technologies ranging from atomic layer deposition to electron beam lithography capable of reliably patterning features down to 8nm. Each individual piece of equipment is characterized by well-documented and communicated materials limitation which mitigate cross-contamination risks. All equipment is physically interlocked with a centralized lab management software platform and each features a revision-tracked Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). This ensures proper & consistent equipment use. An extensive and growing list of characterized, qualified and well-documented processes is also available to all lab members as an additional aid in the development of their unique nanofabrication process flows. Significant process engineering expertise is available in-house to help members make best use of the facility & its many well-controlled and novel capabilities.

Research Services

The facility is open to all graduate researchers from across Canada as well as to government labs & private industry. Interested parties must complete all prerequisites prior to being granted member status. Prospective members must complete an initial process review via our process engineering group to confirm feasibility of their proposed process before proceeding. This initial service is provided free of charge. Training on distinct pieces of equipment is provided on an as-needed basis per the new member’s requirements. Limited device fabrication services may become available in the future.

Sectors of Application
  • Information and communication technologies and media
  • Life sciences, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment
  • Manufacturing and processing

Name of specialized lab

Name of equipment in use

Description of function



Deposition of various thin films via ALD and PECVD


Evaporator: E-beam & thermal

Physical Vapour Deposition of thin films via e-beam and resistive heating thermal evaporation



Low temperature oxide & doped oxide deposition via LPCVD



Deposition of doped & undoped films of polysilicon via LPCVD


LPCVD Silicon Nitride

Low stress silicon nitride deposition via LPCVD


Oxidation - silicon

Wet or dry thermal oxidation and thermal anneal (silicon)


Rapid Thermal Processor

Short duration, high-temperature processing of 4" or 6" wafers


Sputter: Nb Superconducting Films

Physical Vapour Deposition of superconducting films of Nb via sputter deposition


Sputter: Twin Chamber

Physical Vapour Deposition of thin films via sputter deposition


Beamer/Tracer SW suite

Comprehensive SW platform for preparing data for exposure on JEOL JBX-6300FS EBL


E-Beam Litho 30kV (Raith)

Patterning nanometer scale features via electron-beam lithography


E-Beam Litho 100kV (JEOL)

Patterning nanometer scale features via electron-beam lithography


Mask Aligner: Front/Back Capable

Alignment and UV exposure of resist-coated wafers


Oven: Convection

Baking of various photoresist films


Oven: HMDS & Image Reversal

Vapour priming substrates with HMDS ( adhesion promoter) prior to photoresist coat & image reversal


Spin Coat: Dual general purpose

Spin coating of various photoresist and a restricted variety of routine semiconductor films


Spin Coat: E-Beam Resist Station

Spin coating of E-beam photoresist films


Spin Coat: UV Resist Station

Spin coating of UV photoresist films


Ion Mill

Etching of thin films via Ar ion milling


Photoresist Stripper

Photoresist strip & descum


RIE: Deep Si (includes Bosch process)

Plasma-based dry etching of silicon


RIE: Metals & III-V

Plasma-based dry etching of metal thin films and III-V substrates (GaAs & InP)


Bulk Silicon Etch

Bulk wet silicon etch via solutions of KOH


Diffusion Pre-Clean

Wafer clean via RCA chemistries


E-Beam Resist Develop

Development of e-beam resist coated substrates



Bulk wet silicon oxide etch via solutions of HF


Non-HF Acids & Bases

Dedicated for acid (non HF) or base processes and cleans


Piranha Organics Clean & Resist Strip

Photoresist strip using solutions of sulphuric acid & H2O2


Solvent Processing #1

Photoresist develop & lift-off


Solvent Processing #2

Photoresist develop & lift-off


UV Resist Develop

Development of UV resist coated substrates


4-point probe

For measuring resistivity of thin metal films and doped semiconductors


Electrical Probe Station

For measuring electrical characteristics of devices



Non-destructive optical characterization of thin films


Microscope #1

Versatile Olympus MX61A semiconductor microscope for inspecting and documenting


Microscope #2

Versatile Olympus MX61A semiconductor microscope for inspecting and documenting


Reflectometer: Thin Film Mapping

Mapping transparent thin film thicknesses across wafers with diameters up to 200mm


Reflectometer: Thin Film Spot Measurement

Reflectometer for spot-measuring transparent thin film thicknesses


Surface Profiler

Veeco Dektak 150 surface profiler


Wafer Stress Measurement

Characterizing thin film stress


Convection Cure Oven

Baking of various epoxies/packages in ambient atmosphere


Dicing Saw

Tool is used to cut semiconductor wafers into individual chips or dies


Die Bonder

Bonding of semiconductor dies to packages


H2 Plasma Cleaner

Used for cleaning samples prior to die bonding, wire bonding or encapsulation processes


Measurement Microscope

Olympus STM6 microscope for inspection and dimensional measurement of finished semiconductor dies


Wire Bonder: Manual Wedge/Ball

For making electrical contacts between semiconductor dies and packages


Wire Bonder: Semi-automatic Wedge

For making electrical contacts between semiconductor dies and packages


Wire Pull Tester

West-Bond 70PTC to enable destructive and nondestructive testing of wire bonds by the pull test method




New Electron Beam Lithography equipment at Quantum NanoFab


Nano-scale Canadian flag sets world record in lead-up to nation's 150th birthday


Ultrastrong coupling of a single artificial atom to an electromagnetic continuum in the nonperturbative regime